Turabian Referencing -Notable changes in the current Turabian Reference Style

What is the Turabian Referencing Style?

The Turabian referencing style, often regarded as the ‘Chicago Style’ is a referencing style or format which is mostly used by students in disciplines like History, Business, Fine Arts and so on. The first edition of the Turabian style was initially published in the year 1906 with the aim of prioritizing the needs of student writers first.

Placed in much simpler terms, the Turabian or Chicago style can be regarded as a citation style which is mostly adopted during the dissertation, thesis or other academic writing-related projects of students in the fields of History, Business and Fine Arts.

What do Citations in the Turabian Style look like?

When writing an academic piece with the Turabian referencing style or format, students are permitted to either use the Notes and bibliography style or the Author-date style.

  • The Notes and Bibliography Style is simply regarded as the process whereby the citations used in the academic piece are either footnotes or end-notes, which are both situated at the foot of the paper in each page. Similarly, at the end of the academic piece, the student will provide an alphabetical listing of all the citations provided in these foot or end notes, this is regarded as a bibliography.
  • In this regard, Footnotes can be regarded as an additional piece of information(this could be a citation or just regular historical information regarding a particular source) which is situated at the end of a page. An Endnote, on the other hand, can be regarded as an additional piece of information(this could also be citations, personal reflections and/or historical information regarding a particular source) which is situated at the end of a chapter or section in an academic piece. Example of footnote formatting in Turabian Style includes;
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The Homo erectus can be regarded as an ‘extinct specie of human genus(Homo), perhaps an ancestor of modern humans(Homo Sapiens)1

1 Rightmire, Philip, Homo Erectus – Definition(London, Britannica, 2022). pg.12

  • Alternatively, a bibliography can be regarded as the alphabetical listing of all the sources or scholarly works which are consulted by a student while writing a thesis, dissertation or other forms of academic work.

The Author-date Style, on the other hand, is also regarded as the process whereby the student makes use of in-text citations which appear in parentheses. In other words, this is a situation whereby the student or writer provides information from a particular source and writes the name of the author and the date in which that particular work was published(usually in brackets) immediately after the information is provided. For instance;

The Homo Erectus can be regarded as ‘an extinct specie of human genus(Homo), perhaps an ancestor of modern human(Homo Sapiens)(Rightmire, 2022, pg.12).

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What are the current changes in the Turabian Referencing Style?

As fore mentioned in this article, the Turabian style was curated in the year 1906 with the sole aim of providing a citation style or format which will be most convenient for the students and teachers or lecturers in different fields. Hence, in order to achieve this particular goal, the formatting technique gets changed at least once a year or two. For instance, in the 7th edition of the Turabian style, which was produced in 2007, students were asked to present the bibliographical citation of a book in the following manner;

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First name of the author, last name of the author. Title of the Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication’

This is quite different from the current Turabian style – that is the 9th edition – which was released in 2018. In this edition, students are asked to present the bibliographical citation of a book in the following manner;

‘Last name of the Author, First name and/or initials of the Author, Title of the Book; Book Type. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication’

Hence, the other notable changes made in the 9th edition of the Turabian style include;

Journal Article

  • Notes-Bibliography Format:

Note:

Note Number. First Name/Initials of the Author, Last Name of the Author. ‘Title of the Article; Article Type, ‘Title of the Journal; Journal Type. Volume Number, Issue Number(Date of Publication): page number(s). URL.

Bibliographical Entry:

Last name of the Author, First/Initials of the Author. ‘Title of the Article; Article Type’. ‘Title of the Journal: Journal Type. Volume Number, Issue Number(Date of Publication). page number(s).

  • Author-Date Format

In-text Citation:

(Last Name of the Author, Year of Publication, page number(s))

References Entry:

Last of the Author, First/ Initials of the Author. Year. ‘ Title of the Article: Article Type’. ‘Title of the Journal: Journal Type. Volume Number, Issue Number, page number(s).

Website Pages

  • Notes – Bibliography Format:

Note:

Note Number. First/Initial of Author, Last Name of the Author, ‘Title of the Web Article: Article Type’, Owner or Title of the site, Date of Publication, Date of Access, URL.

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Bibliographical Entry:

Last name of the Author, First name/Initials of the Author. ‘Title of the Web page.’ Title or Owner of the site, Date of Publication, Date of Access. URL.

  • Author -Date Format

In-text Citation:

(Last name of the Author, Year of Publication).

References Entry:

Last name of the Author, First/Initials of the Author. Year of Publication. ‘Title of the Web page’, Title or Owner of the Website, Date of Access. URL.

In a situation whereby the website fails to state the name of the author of the written post, the student or writer ought to write the use of the Title or Owner of the website as the name of the author. For instance, if the title of the website is ‘Blueprint Corporation’ and the website does not state the name of the author, the student or writer should cite the post in the following manner.

Blueprint Corporation. 2011. How to design a standard website in WordPress. Blueprint Corporation. Accessed 30th July, 2021. https://www.blueprintcorporation/how-to-design-a-standard-website-in- WordPress/

It is important to note that this tip applies to all forms of citation format in the Turabian Referencing style – that is, both the Note-Bibliography as well as the Author-Date format.

Article Source: https://www.libsguides.msubillings.edu/c.php?g=242157&p=1610538



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