A RESEARCH PROPOSAL SAMPLE ON:
AN EMPIRICAL REVIEW OF INADEQUATE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CURRICULUM OF INSTRUCTION TOWARDS QUALITY EDUCATION (SDG-4): A LOOK AT THE NIGERIA PRIMARY EDUCATION
- Brief Summary
This study is an empirical review of inadequate implementation of the curriculum of instruction towards quality education as contained in SDGs-4 with a focus on Nigeria primary education. A chronologically organized background to the study was made. A good statement of the problem was also accompanied by the purpose of the study. The studies contribution to existing knowledge was stated followed by the research methodology that would be deployed in completing the proposed study.
One of the UN (United Nations)’ much further actions in 2015 were the approval by the National Assembly of 150 Heads of State, Government and members which led to the declaration of the Sustainable Development Agenda (SDGs). The resolution is expected to solve the threat of hunger, insecurity and development in the world by 2030. This sought to encourage international action to solve big challenges such as malnutrition, educational imbalance, poverty, insecurity and other global problems.
As a step toward revising the deficit in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the 17 goals were stated under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Since in many nations, the MDGs has struggled to meet many of its growth targets sufficiently. Education, particularly in most African countries, has been a big field where the MDGs has failed. In one of her studies, the UN also acknowledges this shortfall.
The United Nations argued that the execution of the curriculum development priorities set in the MDGs initiatives was not adequately successful. Under the UN (2017) stated that the planet has not reached the MDGs for compulsory primary education by 2015. About fifty-nine (59) million children in primary school years were out of school in the last few years for which statistics were available. Estimates have it that 1 in 5 of those children has fallen out of those 59 million children and current trends indicate that 2 in five children outside school would never set foot in the classroom again. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) explicitly acknowledge the need to close this void.
The deficiencies found by the MDGs demanded then the UN to flag the existing goals of seventeen (17) sustainability targets which must be reached under the latest initiative named Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) basically by the year 2030 (UN 2017).
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in its Priority 4 branded it as ‘quality education’ out of these ‘new development targets.’ Others include; zero hardship,’ ‘zero hunger,’ ‘healthy living, among others. It is critical that schooling is placed on item No. 4 of the seventeen programmes. The only way to achieve all other SDGs is through schooling (UN 2017). Education is the key to success.
This allows people to work efficiently wherever they find themselves and live in a more healthy and enjoy better existence, not only free themselves from the grasp of poverty but also have a meaningful life. In addition, education contributes significantly to fostering harmony among different people, thereby improving stable communities globally (UN 2017).
It is clear that Nigeria’s accomplishment of a significant number of these targets could be a mirage. The UN SDGs Agenda is commendable and timely. Nigeria as a developing nation has not begun its growth, relative to some of its contemporary nations that had independence in the 1960s. In reality, Nigeria has become a developing country though has done very little in her educational sector.
Obilo and Sanugoleye (2015) claim the curriculum is the mechanism that controls any educational system’s affairs. The curriculum is a planned and directed interaction and results formulating for the ongoing and intentional development of the student and personal social skills by the comprehensive reconstitution of knowledge and experience under the aegis of the school.
For Aneke (2016), in order to accomplish instructional goals, a tool used as a medium for intervention (curriculum) is required and is the program that can be defined as both learning experiences and the outcomes that the school aims to deliver systematically by reconstructing knowledge of the cognitive, affective and psychomotor development of the student.
The program is the method used in society, both adults and young people, through the classrooms. The standard of education is also subject to the quality of the curriculum made available to the system. The program is scheduled and carried out to fulfil social needs. Need is the contrast between what is and what should be. So everything the nation desires are planned, programmed and given to the instructor to transmit and inculcate to the students through its curriculum.
Aneke (2015) maintained that the curriculum is a process by which the educational system instructs people in their schooling, their knowledge, their skills and their attitudes. Curriculum is the car carrying the product; the instructor is the conductor who provides the products to the students i.e. buyers of the goods.
According to Obilo and Saugoleye (2015) curriculum involves disseminating a structured series of learning experiences, the allocation of support to carry out the plan effectively and the successful execution in the classroom by the teacher. The execution of the program involves the engagement between the pupil and the teacher in the curriculum contents in order to obtain the desired skills, personalities, abilities and competencies.
In line with what was mentioned above, Obilo and Saugoleje (2015) suggested that the student with whom the program is intended interacts in order to learn the skills, attitudes and abilities required with the contents and materials. The execution of the program also involves the efforts of everybody who is interested in providing and delivering the required resources to facilitate the accomplishment of the goals of the learning process.
Over the past years, Nigeria has witnessed failures or inadequacies in curriculum implementation which can be traced to the inability of teachers to be fully involved in curricular preparation. This has posed an obstacle to their work as program implementers in terms of efficacy and feasibility. Aneke (2015) saw the implementation of a curriculum as a challenge that calls for integrating efforts of professionals (teachers) and society to turn the curriculum idea into a working curriculum.
Obilo and Sangoleye (2015) stated that the implications of the above are that as long as the design and how it can be done cannot be differentiated from instructional preparation and development, teachers can’t be isolated if it has to be successfully applied. They maintained that the instructor is not only the source of a curriculum but also a modifier, a transmitter; he must engage in the preparation and implementation phases to prevent derailing from the goals, targets and objectives of the proposed program. In view of the above, the teacher makes a definitive judgment about the true learning environment to be offered to the learners. It is, therefore, necessary for the developers or planners of the curriculum to integrate implementers into the planning and developing process so as to put to an end the incidence of inadequate curriculum implementation thereby facilitating the easier and better achievement of the sustainable development goals (SGDs) quality education for all in Nigeria and the world at large come 2030.
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1.2.Statement of the problem
Although the curriculum’s position as a profession in domestic theory is generally known and embraced in Nigerian education systems, the application of this main educational blueprint continues to be problematic as regards Sustainable Developments Goals (SDGs). Many laudable aims of the program have not been accomplished due to a flawed implementation of the curriculum level. Well-conceived thoughts on the curriculum remained almost vague and dysfunctional.
The consequence has been the acquisition of higher-ranking graduates, whose realistic and technical skills have been found to be severely lacking (Polikoff & Porter, 2014). The consequence of this condition is the development of half-baked, ill-trained and at times confused graduates. This issue and other similar cases should be of concern to all the patriotic and serious educational stakeholders. In this context, this research aims to examine the inadequate implementation of the curriculum of instruction towards quality education (SDG-4) with a particular reference to Nigeria primary education.
It was discovered however that teachers have opted not to adopt the curriculum as instructed, causing contradictions (Min, 2017). Teachers and parents have noted that the curricular execution is not loyalty, since the curriculum no longer has the vertical roster as an insufficient factor for their students’ unpreparedness for the next step.
The vertical alignment of curriculum practice and curriculum fidelity between preceding and subsequent stages of schooling, as discussed below, has to do with the parallels in education practice (Wiles & Bondi 2016). It is impossible to decide which goals are taught until the next grade when teachers are not correctly enforcing the program. There are reasons why the faithful application of a new program is accepted or stopped by the students.
In spite of the various instructional methods and teaching approaches used in the execution of the material, the program varies from the previous programme. Previous researchers have reported that teachers should be loyal to the numerous student preparation goals to incorporate curricula (Levi-Keren & Patkin, 2016; McShane & Eden, 2015; Stellar, 2016).
The above mentioned NCES (2017) findings show that 80% of teachers with high to moderate faithfulness applied curricula reported substantial changes in instructional methods and techniques that aid student learning. The literature also presents proof of the need for continuity in the use of a curriculum guide in the application process to optimize students’ gains (McNeill, Katsh-Singer, Gonzalez-Howard and Lopez, 2016).
Though the curriculum program is a consciously structured instructional experience designed to achieve behavioral improvements. It has been noted that Nigeria’s educational curriculum cannot achieve anticipated outcomes in upgrading the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Nigerian curriculum is obsolete, and cannot be compared with the school curriculum of other countries of the world.
In order to accomplish SDGs, Nigeria has to upgrade its curriculum. According to Agbionu, Joseph and Ifeyinwa (2016) the education system is ineffective, as graduates from many universities are unable to fulfil the country’s needs. In academic standards and learning gains, significant inequalities remain. School curricula require immediate evaluation such that they are applicable and realistic.
The major concern with the educational curriculum in Nigeria is that teachers who are the most significant players in the fields of curriculum delivery are removed in the process. The perceived rigidity of the program is often stagnant and does not change or upgrade as culture continues to evolve. Due to the above backdrop, the need for this study that aims at reviewing the inadequate implementation of the curriculum of instruction and its effects on achieving quality education as contained in SDG-4 with a focus on Nigeria primary education.
1.3. Objectives of the study
The objective of this proposed study will be subdivided into two major categories, namely the broad objectives and the specific objectives.
1.3.1. Broad Objective
The broad objective of this study is to empirically review the inadequate implementation of the curriculum of instruction towards quality education in line with SDGs number 4 with a particular reference to Nigeria primary education.
1.3.2. Specific Objectives
In line with the broad objective of the study, the research sought to:
- Find out the levels of attainment of SDGs number 4 of providing quality education for all in Nigeria.
- Examine the level of curriculum implementation in primary education in Nigeria.
- Discover the cause of inadequate primary education curriculum implementation affecting SDGs-4 attainment in Nigeria.
- Suggest some solutions to the problems of inadequate primary education curriculum implementation which is against SDGs-4 attainment in Nigeria.
1.4. Contributions of the Study to Existing Knowledge
The value of this research work will be numerous and countless. This study will expose to the educational stakeholders the need to understand that teachers can be helpful in the curriculum planning and development process and the need to bring them in the process fully. Understanding and identifying the potential challenges, concerns and behaviours of teachers will help promote the development and preparedness of students (Lambert, Velez, & Elliot, 2015; Lochner et al., 2015). By identifying the challenges, issues and behaviours could offer guidance into how best to improve student success at the present and subsequent stages of education.
This analysis will include insights that will contribute to better alignment of the curriculum by digging at the application of the newly adjusted curriculum and exploring the reasons why teachers do not completely use a new aligned curriculum. The interviews and findings are taken by the researcher in order to get an appreciation of the fact that teachers frequently don’t adopt a new program in full. This knowledge will lead to managerial action and a strategy to promote professionalism in the curriculum implementation, thereby improving the vertical harmonization and performance of the students.
The findings of this study may serve private schools that hope to strengthen their vertical and horizontal education balance in the curriculum, thereby building continuity and reducing learning gaps. If solutions are offered to the challenges of curriculum implementation, greater student success and preparedness will be included in this study’s contributions to social transition thereby promoting effective attainment of quality education for all by 2030 as contained in SDGs.
1.5.1. Design of the Study
For effective research analysis, a survey research design approach will be used. In this process, the target population data from a chosen sample is extracted and the results from sample analysis are generalized for the whole population. This approach will be adopted since it helps the researcher to discover the relative influence and distribution of population characteristics.
1.5.2. Population of the Study
Espinosa and Yamashita (2015) describe the population as a category of prospective subjects for the purpose of generalizing the study findings obtained from the sample derived from the population, items or events on which researchers wish. Therefore, the population comprised of persons or groups of persons (students, teachers or other people). All the stakeholders in primary education in Nigeria will be among the target population for this study.
1.5.3. Sample and Sampling Techniques
In the collection of the sample size, a random sampling procedure was used. The sample size of five hundred (500) was obtained based on the sample estimating technique applied. The five hundred respondents will be chosen randomly from the five southeastern states in Nigeria in which 100 respondents from each state will be chosen. The adoption of this sampling techniques is based on the fact that it will allow that all components of a given population have equal opportunities of being chosen.
A well-structured questionnaire titled ‘Inadequate Curriculum Execution for Quality Education, SDGs focus.’ The questionnaire will be developed by the researcher through the guidance of the supervisor and other experts aimed at eliciting data from the respondents based on the investigative questions provided in the questionnaire. The instrument will be subdivided into two part. The personal information of respondents including age, gender and rank etc. are given in Part A while in part B house the research items. The questionnaire was structured in Likert-scale format with four scales of rating namely; “Strongly Agree” (SA)-4, “Agree” (A)-3, “Disagree” (D) – 2 and “Strongly Disagree” (SD) – 1.
1.5.5. Validity of the instrument
Validity has to do with the magnitude of the adequacy and suitability of the representations and behavior based upon test scores of scientific facts and theoretical rationales. In other words, it tests to what extent a measurement or measuring tool measures what it is meant to measure, or how well the test or a sense tool performs its function (Oluwatayo, 2017). On the basis of checking the content and face validity, two professionals will validate the instrument developed to guide the study, one of them will be the supervisor of this work, while another is will be a specialist from the Department of measurement and Evaluation, federal ministry of education, Abuja. Their thoughts and recommendations will be integrated into the final draft of the research instrument.
1.5.6. Reliability of the Instrument
Reliability refers to the degree to which the effects of the instruments are accurate (Oluwatayo, 2017). A trial test was conducted to determine the reliability of the questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to 20 randomly selected educationists from the Universal Basic Education Board. The results gotten from the respondents will be correlated using the spearman Rank Order Correlation Procedure.
1.5.7. Method of Data Collection
The researcher, alongside four research assistants, will use a straightforward method of conducting and collecting the instrument. After completion by the respondents, the researcher assistants would help the researcher to handle and compile the testing instrument (questionnaire). The researcher alongside four research assistants will convene at the ministry of education, which would serve as the meeting point of the targeted respondents. The choice for this method of data collection is to ensure the instrument’s high return rate.
1.5.8. Method of Data Analysis
The data collected will be analyzed using Mean (X) and Standard Deviation (SD). The mean decision-making requirement is 2.50 and anything less is rejected. The ranking of the responses of the respondents will be based on 4 points scale: strongly agreed (SA) Agreed, (A) Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (SD). By replicating the frequency with the required nominal value for the number of answers to each item, the mean score for each item was determined as follows:
X = Efx
Where: X = mean
E = sum of
F = the frequency of responses on each item
N = Total number of respondents.
Therefore, in order to determine the degree of acceptance of each of the items, the mean of a 4 point Likert scale item will be carried out as follows:
SA = 4
A = 3
D = 2
SD = 1
Total = 10
Therefore, X = Efx = 10 = 2.50
To define the argument that the public opinion is reflective, a standard mean will be computed. Any item with an overall score of 2.50 or higher was accepted upon, while anything scoring lower than that would be rejected.
Aneke, M. N (2016). Unpublished M.Ed Dissertation, Enugu State University of Science and Technology.
Agbionu, E. O., Joseph, C. and Ifeyinwa, N. (2016). Need-Oriented Curriculum in Our Education System: A Strategy for Capacity Building in Nigeria. Arts Social Sciences Journal, Vol. 7, Issue 4, pp. 1-4.
Espinosa, L., L. and Yamashita, M. (2015). EvaluationToolkit. Evaluation Guide. Analyze Data. Available at http://toolkit.pellinstitute.org/evaluation-guide/analyze/analyze-qualitative-data/.
Kyndt, E., Gijbels, D., Grosemans, I., & Donche, V. (2016). Teachers’ everyday professional development. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 1111-1150. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654315627864.
Levi-Keren, M., & Patkin, D. (2016). Mathematics teachers’ professional development program—Needs and expectations. International Journal for Mathematics Teaching and Learning, 5, 1-33.
Lambert, M., Velez, J., & Elliot, K. (2015). What are the teachers’ experiences when implementing the curriculum for agricultural science education? Journal of Agricultural Education, 55(4), 100-115. https://doi.org/0.5032/jae.2014.04100.
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Min, M. (2017). Teachers who initiate changes with an ebook-integrated curriculum: Revisiting the developmental assumptions of stages of concern in the concerns based adoption model. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 63(1), 21-42.
McNeill, K. L., Katsh-Singer, R., Gonzalez-Howard, M., & Loper, S. (2016). Factors impacting teachers’ argumentation instruction in their science classrooms. International Journal of Science Education, 38(12), 2026-2046. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2016.1221547.
McShane, M., & Eden, M. (2015). Encouraging efficiency, rewarding quality: Lessons for school choice policy and practice. Journal of School Culture, 9(1), 97-114. https://doi.org/0.1080/15582159.2015.998968.
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2017). Effects of curriculum and teacher professional development on the language proficiency of elementary English language learner students in the Central region. Available at https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=REL20124013.
Obilo P.I & Sangoleye S.A (2015) Curriculum implementation and the teacher: Challenges and Way forward. Available at http://www.globalacademicgroup.com/journals/academic%20excellence%20/CURRICULUM%20IMPLEMENTATION%20AND%20THE%20TEACHER.pdf.
Oluwatayo, J. A. (2017). Validity and Reliability Issues in Educational Research. Journal of Educational and Social Research. ISSN 2240‐0524. Vol. 2 (2) May 2012.
Polikoff, M. S., & Porter, A. C. (2015). Instructional alignment as a measure of teacher quality. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 36(4), 399-416. https://doi.org/10.3102/016237314531851.
Stellar, A. (2016). The public school advantage: Why public schools outperform private schools. AASA Journal of Scholarship Practice, 13(3), 62-65. https://doi.org/10.118558909.
United Nations. (2015). transforming our world: The 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform.
Wiles, J. W., & Bondi, J. C. (2016). Curriculum development: A guide to practice (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
- 1 A RESEARCH PROPOSAL SAMPLE ON:
- 2 AN EMPIRICAL REVIEW OF INADEQUATE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CURRICULUM OF INSTRUCTION TOWARDS QUALITY EDUCATION (SDG-4): A LOOK AT THE NIGERIA PRIMARY EDUCATION
- 2.1 1.1. Introduction
- 2.2 1.2.Statement of the problem
- 2.3 1.3. Objectives of the study
- 2.4 1.4. Contributions of the Study to Existing Knowledge
- 2.5 1.5. METHODOLOGY
- 2.6 References