How to write Chapter one of a final year project- 8 Steps you need to know

Introduction/Background of the study

This is an overall introduction to your topic of interest that provides an in-depth background to the topic.  You must be precise and state the purpose of your research.  This is the most detailed part of chapter one; here, you would give a historical development of your research topic. State the different overlapping views in this area and significant investigations that researchers have done.

Also, it would help if you talked about the present state of your research. Have there been any changes?  You can cite a few paragraphs from your literature review, but it must summarise the conflicts in your area of the project that has not been addressed.

Statement of the Problem

This is where you state the specific problem that you intend to address. It usually will begin with: This project addresses the problem of….”  When writing your problem, make sure you address the existing problems before you intend to proffer solutions in your research.

Purpose of the study

This is the section where you give the overall purpose of your project.  It must be related to your literature review and answer the questions raised in your problem statement.  Ensure that your hypothesis is clearly stated and testable.

The significance of the study

This states the importance of addressing the problem you are set o work on. It would help if you linked your work to any area that you think the study will help. Is it going to improve the human condition or the state of education? Whatsoever it is, this is where you have to state the relevance of your research.

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Theoretical Framework

This is the basic theory used to provide insight into which your research work is built.  There are lots of theories depending on the topic you are working on.  For example, research work on evolution would be working with Charles Darwin’s theory.

Research Questions

These are guiding lights to your research, and it provides insight into your objective/purpose of the study. Your questions should be structured in a way that will provide answers to the researcher. Avoid Yes/No questions and try using the WH questions.

When you ask a YES/NO question, you cannot make headway in your project work because you will not have information to work with. Stay away from closed-ended questions. Rather than use open-ended ones,

Research Hypothesis

Your hypothesis must be tentative to the problem under study and should relate to the questions you have raised in your research questions.


There may be constraints that may influence the outcome of your research; they are beyond your control, so you must state them.


Some topics are broad and, because of the time you have, you might have to chop off some areas deliberately,;, and clearly define the length to which your project will cover.

Definition of terms

Make sure you define important terms and concepts in your projects, such as variables, acronyms, and keywords.

Steps in writing chapter one of a research project (Summarised)

The format in which your chapter will follow differs depending on your discipline. However, most of the chapter one follows the following format;

  • Background to the study

At this stage, it is expected that the research extensively discusses the keywords in their research topic, showing its relationship with existing works of literature and the gaps in knowledge. It states what will be done in the work/research study.

  • Statement of the problem

Here, the researcher is expected to discuss the central issues surrounding their research topic, providing detailed information on the effect of the status quo on the intended population to be studied.

  • Objectives of the study

Here, the specific objectives which will guide the study are formulated. The specific objectives can be framed based on the research problem and the identified gap in knowledge. The research specific objectives must construct in a manner that reflects and supports the general objective of the research study.

  • Research questions

 The formulation of research questions allows the researcher to obtain data from respondents. Research questions can be formulated by turning the specific objectives into questions.

  • Research hypothesis

The researcher formulates a hypothetical assumption that will be tested in the long run in the research. These assumptions, in most cases, are phrased from the research questions and specific objectives.

  • Justification/significance of the study.

Here, the researcher is expected to discuss the importance of the intended study and how it would contribute to the development of the targeted population, the wider society and the body of knowledge.

  • Scope of the study

The scope of the study provides readers with information on the content areas to be covered in the study and the geographical areas to be covered or studied.

  • limitation of the study
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This segment provides details on the possible setback the study will likely face. Limitations can come in the form of time constraints, unavailability, developing related literature, lack of finance, or the inadequacy of the instrument to be employed for data analysis, among others.

  • Operational definition of terms

Here the keywords and other related words used in the study are defined and explained to aid understanding.

  • References

It is expected that the researcher provides a comprehensive list of all the works of literature and, are and they and th they consulted while carrying out the study workbook as detailed information on all the authors cited or quoted in the win workbook. References may appear at the end of each chapter, which is called endnotes, or at the bottom end of every page, such as the case in footnotes.

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Read Also: How to write Research statement of problem



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