two different approaches for the identification or possible learning problems of the second language acquisition, contrastive analysis and error analysis


The two different approaches for the identification or possible learning problems of the second language acquisition, contrastive analysis and error analysis. A number or proponents of an error analysis approach claim that CO can serve as an adequate tool for identifying the areas of difficult for learners or a second language. But on the other hand, it has been noticed that error analysis is not able to explain the avoidance phenomenon, since error analysis registers only the  error done by learners of a second language (Schachter 1974). Avoidance behaviour represents a communicate strategy of a learner of a second language by which the learner prefers using a simpler form instead of the target linguistic element the reason of difficulty on the part of the target feature.

Consequently, avoidance behaviour serves as a manifestation or learning prophenus, and its results should be definitely considered when compiling language syllabi and tests (laufer and Eliasson 1993).

And since error analysis does not consider and is not able to explain the avoidance phenomenon, it cannot be observed s an adequate approach for assisting teachers of a second language w materials.

In this work, we set a goal to compare contrastive analysis with the error analysis approach in respect of their treatment or avoidance behaviour. So, on the avoidance behaviour we will show that contrastive analysis does not predict the avoidance phenomenon in most cases and therefore, gives a complete description of the areas of difficulty for learners of a second language.

We suppose that we can come across the cases in which the avoidance phenomenon would not manliest itself although it has been predicted by contrastive analysis in addition, we do riot exclude the possibility to find the cases in which avoidance behaviour would come into being despite the negative predictions made on the basis of contrastive analysis. In these both cases we will show that the prediction of contrastive analysis are necessary, but not sufficient for the explanation of the avoidance be1 in order to submit sufficient information for the explanation of the avoidance phenomenon.

Contrastive Analysis

According to Banathy, Trager, and waddle (1966) define the idea of the contrastive analysis as (the strong version) as follows “the change that has to take place in the language behaviour of a for language student can be equated with the differences be the structure of the students native language and culture and that of the target language and culture.

The task of the linguist, the cultural anthropologists and the sociologist is to identify these differences. The task of the writer of a foreign language teaching problem is to develop materials which will be based on a statement of these differences; the task of foreign language teacher is to be aware of there differences an be prepared to teach them; the task of the student is to lea

Error Analysis

Error analysis is the study of kind and quantity, of error that occurs, particularly in the field of applied mathematics (particularly numerical analysis applied linguistics and statistics.

Error Analysis: Assumes that errors indicate learning difficulties and that the frequency in a particular error is evidence of the difficulty learners have in learning the particular form. The main difference between these two errors is that the former tries

to predict the errors one may make in L2 production.

Error analysis in numerical modelling in numerical simulation or modelling or real system, error analysis is concerned with the changes in the output or the model as the parameters to the model Kerrey about a mean. For instance, n a system modded as a function or two variable = f (Ly). Error analysis deals with the propagation of the numerical errors in i and y ground mean values I and y) to error in = ground a mean E).

In numerical analysis, error analysis comprises both forward error analysis and backward error analysis. Forward error analysis involves the analysis of a function = I (a°, a — L an) Which is an approximation (usually a finite polynomial) to a function = F (a0 a1 -, an) to determine the bounds an the error n We approximation Le, to find such that  ocl =- = -1 = E backward error analysis involves the analysis of the approximation function  =1 f1 (a0 a1 — an), to determine the hound on the parameters al = ai el such that the result = 1 = –

Error, that has to do with uncertainty in measurements that nothing can be done about. If a measurement is repeated, the values obtained will differ and none of the result can be preferred over the others. Although it is not possible to do anything about such error.

The knowledge we have of the physical world is obtained by doing experiments and making measurement. It is important to understand how to express such data and how to analyze and draw meaningful conclusions from it.

In doing this, it is crucial to understand that all measurement of physical quantities are subject to uncertainties.

It is never possible to measure anything exactly. It is good,  of course, to make the error as small as possible but it is always there. And in order to draw valid conclusions the error must be indicated and dealt with proper.


For a Chinese learner of English, the third person singular form and the plural ending ‘s’ or ‘es’ are the common sources or error, even though both forms are the very basic items the learn in English and superficially simple. ‘S’ or ‘es’ endings are readily dropped in both the written and spoken forms of English. For a Chinese, learner the reason is obvious. In Chinese the plurality of the NP or encoded in the preceding numerals of determmers. The two sisters’ becomes two sisters (liong imer), five boxes’

( Literally in English: Five item bot: ‘Zini is a kind of measurement classifies indicating a kind of ‘unit’ of the referent. This is also something special in the Chinese language, and many cause similar difficulty for an English learner in Chinese. The difference in only one system between the two Languages has already been a great source or error for the learners between the two languages. This brings out the major concern or contrastive analysis and error analysis (CA and EA) in applied for s or foreign language teaching.

Contrastive analysis in linguistics owns its origin to the Americans linguist C. C. Eries who started in 1945 that the most effective materials are those that are based upon a genetific description or the language to be learned, carefully compared with a parallel description of the native language of the learner.

This was the assumption of Robert Cado which he takes up in ten years later in his linguistics across  cultures in which the theoretical foundation or- CA was coined down CA was further developed in Europe in the seventies when several project on CA wore actually carried out (Van Eis et al 1954).

When any interaction takes place between two language L2 learning or translation with difference will inevitably play on important part. The phenomenon like foreign accent is one or the example. The criticism that CA gains no fruitful result can be looked in two different forms. Country wise most critics are from the former perspective expecting that a universal contrastive grammar of some sort should finally be produced from CA predicting all difficulties the L learner may have so that the corresponding teaching materials.


CA will predict all problems iii L learning as of course an over simplified hypothesis but to done that CA can actually predicted L2 learning problems is also not scientific Among the Chinese learners of English error in the number and tense system, in article usage are (hisnly) predictable As in mentioned  at the beginning of the essay, the dropping of ‘5’ or es is frequently found even at the very advanced level and especially in spoken form. The following sentence is taken from composition written by a Chinese science postgraduate in Britain.

So they began to settle down in a certain place, started to plant crop while the crop were growing they manage to feed animal.

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