- February 16, 2016
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- Category: Academic Writing Guide
The indispensability of instructional materials on social studies pedagogy in secondary schools in Izzi L.G.A
Background of the study
Social studies as a discipline have been defined by several authors in different occasions. Odedele and Egotanwa (2000) in their opinion said that social studies deals with man physical and social environments including science and technology. Man here refers to “all human beings”. Man uses, science and technology as a means of solving problems arising from the two environments (physical and social Environments). In this case, social studies is regarded as a “problem solving discipline” Igba Nweke (2004) stressed that social studies deals with the network of relationship of man with his social and physical environments as well as examine the effects of science and technology on both environments. Kissock (1981;16) in his definition of social studies stated that; “social studies is a programming of structure which the teacher use instill in the students or pupils the ideas, knowledge skills, attitude, values and actions considered important concerning the relationship which human being have with one another”. Summary, social studies deals on how man interacts with physical and social environments as well as how man uses the available resources to solve the problems that arise in both environments. The subject takes a look on how man influences the environments influence man. The physical environments refer to things that surround man such as trees, hills houses, electronic, Lorries, bridges, motor cars etc. The social environment includes, social organizations such as faming, political institutions, religions institution, economic institution etc. Having explained what social studies is all about, there is the need to briefly look at the meaning of social studies pedagogy. The New Webster’s dictionary of English language defined pedagogy as the “It is the study of methods and styles of teaching. Thus the science of teaching and learning of social studies could be regarded as social studies pedagogy. Right from the origin of social studies, there are methods and styles use by the teachers to sere that the stated. Objectives in Nigeria man practices what could be called traditional or indigenous social studies (Bozimo and Ikwumelu 2000).
In the indigenous social studies education, the culture of the people was transmitted to the younger ounces. The methods of teaching used in this case were oral tradition. Mezieobi (1992: 31) throw more light on traditional social studies in the following words.
It is perceptibly clear that the whole traditional educational practice in Nigeria was epitomized in indigenous social studies”.Mezieobi further opined that indigenous education is synonymous with indigenous social studies. The modern type of social studies came as a result of the introduction of western type of education. Social studies were introduced in the various institutions. Of learning after several conferences were held. They include the Mombassa social studi8es conference which was had in 1968. In the conference, the need to introduce social studies in education are been taught at all levels of education including higher institution.
The modern social studies also have methods and styles of its teaching. Teachers of social studies employ methods and styles which among them is the use of instructional materials. Social studies have many instructional materials which help for its effective teaching and learning. Institutional materials are regarded as institutional aids or resources materials by many educators. Ogwa (2002) defined institutional materials as all the material or teaching aids or material recourse which the teacher utilizes for the purpose of making teaching and learning more effective and meaningful to students.
NCE/DLS course Book on Education cycle described instructional materials as the things or materials that help in learning. Instructional materials include; textbook, magazines newspapers, Novels, television, computer, Radio, charts, Mockups, to mention but a few.
The peculiar nature of social studies makes it possible for great variety of instructional materials or aids to be applied in it’s teaching and learning. (Bozimo and Ikwumelu, 2000). Social studies cannot be taught in abstract, therefore there is the need to employ those devices that will help for the effective teaching and leaching of the subject. In every teaching and learning process, there are three domains of achievements which must be attained before it could be assumed that learning has taken place. These include the effective, the psychomotor and the cogitative domains. The question is how can the above mentioned objectives could be achieved? A good teacher tries to employ a number of devices to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the information in terms of producing the desired effects on the learners. Hence the use of instructional material.
Therefore, instructional materials are essential in the teaching and learning of social studies teachers of social studies cannot do without instructional materials. If the teachers teach the subject without instructional materials, the students cannot have a concrete feeling of what make up the physical and social environments. There will be no easy understanding of the topic because every thing is taught in abstract. Not only that, the learns will loose interest in the teaching. There will be no active participation of the students during the teaching and learning process.
Statement of the Study
The standard of teaching and learning of social studies in the secondary school in Izzi L.G.A. is declining in alarming rate. This is dice to non use of instructional materials during the teaching and learning process. Most of the teachers now stand in front of the class and teach without the enable tools to substantiate the points being made. Learners find it difficult to understand the topic because every thing is theoretical, abstract and ineffective.
It could be that lack of fund affects the use of instructional materials.
It may be that our schools lack well trained teachers who could value the use of instructional materials.
Also, teachers poor attitudes towards the use of instructional materials might have contributed to the decline.
Moreover, it could be as a result of teachers inability to produce or improvise most of the instructional materials.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to examine the indispensability of instructional materials on social studies pedagogy in secondary schools in Izzi L.G.A. this study is specifically designed to:
- Determine whether teachers appreciate the use of instructional materials on social studies pedagogy in Izzi L.G.A.
- Determine whether lack of funds contributes for in effective use of instructional materials in the study of social studies Izzi L.G.A.
- Determine whether poor attitude to work among teachers affects the use of instructional materials on social studies, in Izzi L.G.A.
- Establish whether teachers are been trained properly to value the use of instructional materials in social studies education in Izzi L.G.A.
Significance of the Study
The essence of this study is look into the indispensability of instructional materials in the study is look into the indispensability of instructional materials in the study of social studies in secondary school level. This work is aimed to improve the use of instructional materials in social studies education. Both the teachers and the students will benefit from this research work.
Teachers will begin to appreciate the use of instructional materials and also improvise most of the materials. The use of instructional material will make teaching and learning and learning very easy students will begin understand what the teacher is teaching because everything is concrete. Students learn more when there is close contact of the objects. The student’s skill will be developed since they help to improvise most of the instructional materials. In this case, the psychomotor objective of learning is been achieved.
The outcome of this research study will also enable the government to fully appreciate the need of funding educational sector which will create room for adequate supply of instructional materials in social studies education.
Scope of the Study
In this study, the researcher focus on the indispensability of instructional material on social studies pedagogy in the secondary schools in Izzi L.G.A. this study also look into how lack of funds and poor attitude to work among teacher has contributed to the decline in the use of instructional materials in the study of social studies.
The research is conducted among social studies, teachers in secondary schools in Izzi L.G.A.
- To what extent do teachers appreciate the indispensability of instructional materials on social studies pedagogy in Izzi L.G.A?
- To what extent does the poor attitude to work among teachers affect the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of social studies in Izzi L.G.A.?
- To what extent does “Teachers education” adequately prepare teachers to produce, improvise and use instructional materials in social studies pedagogy in Izzi L.G.A.?
- To what extent has inadequacy in educational facilities affects the production and use of instructional materials on social studies education in Izzi L.G.A.?
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter will be reviewed under the following sub-leading:
- Conceptual framework of social studies
- Review of empirical studies
- Summary of literature reviewed
Conceptual Framework of Social Studies
Social studies as a discipline are newly introduced in the educational curriculum. The idea behind the introduction of social studies is to enable man proffer solutions to the problems that arise in the physical and social environments.
Man as a social animal encounters a lot of social problems. In order to seek for immediate solution to these problems, the. Curriculum experts begin to see the need to include social studies in educational programme. Their aim is to expose man with the knowledge on how to interact with the cultural, political and economic environments (Willians, 2004).
The history of social studies in Nigeria could be traced from 1958 when the former western state of Nigeria first participates in the “Ohio” project. The project could be said to be a bilateral educational arrangement between the former western state of Nigeria and university of Ohio. The students teachers in the western state teachers training colleges were taught social studies. Also in the Northern part of the country, there was the Northern Nigeria teachers education project (NNTEP). The project was carried out to write a syllabus and develop teacher educational materials that would explain theory and practice of social studies to participating teachers colleges in Bauchi, Bida, Illorin, Katstina, Maid-uguri and Sokoto (Bozimo and Ikwumelu, 2000).
Social studies was practically established in Nigerian educational curriculum. Through the efforts of some bodies that helped to actualize the dreams include:
- Nigeria educational research Council (NERC).
- The African social studies programme (ASSP).
- Social Studies Association of Nigeria formed in 1969 (SOSAN).
- National Association of social studies education (NASSE) formed in 1992).
Igba and Nweke (2004) pointed out that social studies were introduced in Nigeria through a Lot of conferences such as the Mombassa, conference of 1968. The conference was attended by independent Educators, representative of higher institutions and government officials from eleven African states. The conference stressed on the need to read just education in African to relate specifically the African culture. They observed that the colonial educational system did not serve the interest of African.
They therefore, set out the social studies curriculum which would develop the positive values of African society. The curriculum was embodied in the African social studies programme (ASSP) and it was accepted by all including Nigeria.
Social studies curriculum development could be said to have begun at Auyetoro Comprehensive High School in 1963. In 1965, the school was assigned with the materials for the early classes of secondary education. In 1967, seven members of comprehensive High School, Auyetoro went to the united state to attend five weeks special workshop on social studies. As a result, they came home to revise their books and modify it with new ideas. Also new copies were published.
Social studies were fully discussed during the national curriculum conference of 1969 held in lagos. The conference defined social studies and established it as a subject in primary, secondary and teachers training institutions. Today it is a compulsory subject in most states of federation and it has been introduced to the various higher institutions. Hence the origin of teaching and learning of social studies.
According to Akinpelul 1981) teaching is a deliberate effort by a nature or experienced person to impart information, knowledge and skills to immature or less experienced persons through a process that is morally and pedagogically acceptable for this the content must be worth while and methodology to get across the content and must be educationally acceptable.
Onwuka (1981) stressed that learning is the permanent acquisition and habitual utilization of newly acquired knowledge or experience. The main aim of carrying out an instruction is to bring a change in the behavior of human beings. There is a relatively permanent change in behavior usually referred to as practice (Omebe 2002).
Kenworthy (1993) sees social studies as the study of people. Both the cultural political economic and geographical aspects of lives are taken care of.
Igba and Nweke (2002) stated that the introduction of social studies is for the solution to human social problems. Solution to the problems needs a critical thinking. Thus social studies in this case are seen as problem solving discipline. The present democratic society needs individuals who are not only vast in the competencies and attitudes essential for the survival of a democracy but will also wish and be able to maintain and extend the fundamental attributes and values of a democratic way of life. All these are roles social studies play in the life of an individual.
Bozimo and Ikwumelu (2000) outlined five general aims and objective of social studies for. Nigeria as follow:
- To make Nigeria student understand their environments and their relationship with the physical, social, economic, cultural etc. environments and to understand the same of other human beings.
- To improve and broaden the basis of the Nigeria educational system which has been criticized from time to time as narrow and unimaginative.
- To help them know that all subjects are related and that these subjects are just like branches of tree with a common stem.
- To develop, encourage and strengthen enquiring minds in pupils.
- To help Nigerians teachers, pupils and students to Nigerians teachers, pupils and students to discover what is good and unique in the physical, social, economic and cultural tradition which lither to have been implied or neglected.
Instructional Materials-Meaning and Types
The word instruction used in a generic sense refers to any specific means of controlling or manipulating a sequence of events to produce the required modifications through learning (Okereke, 2002). Through instructions, communications enhanced in which the teacher elicits relevant responses from his audience.
(Learner) after it had been exposed to his message to effect changes in the behavior of the learner by presenting facts and information, teaching roles and procedures, directing roles and procedures, directing attention, involving learners active and meaningful participation provoking and guiding thoughts on the selection of appropriate methods and material.
Aguokogbuo (2002) pointed out that instructional materials are those material or resources employed by the teacher to make teaching and learning effective and productive. These instructional materials are at times called instructional aids resources or materials, in more embracing. It covers all those materials human or non-human, drawn or photographed, built but manually of electrically operated books and all form of related materials used in teaching and learning progress.
Ughamadu (1992) outline instructional materials to include soft wares as film-strip, transparencies 8m and 16mm motion pictures, audio tape/video tape, record that usually store information or massages that are transmitted by certain devices. Also included are printed materials like text books, Journals and non-printed materials. Like Chack board, models, real things etc. NCE/DLS course Book on education cycle I classified instructional material as the following:
- Human resource
- Visual resource
- Audio visual resource
- School environment resource
- Community resource
- Other resource
The resources materials available for use in social studies are categorized into three reading materials, audio-visual materials, and community resource (Michaelis, 1980).
The reading materials include textbooks, magazines newspaper, references, encyclopedias, novels, and all other types of printed materials non-reading materials include picture, maps, globes, recoding, films and film strips etc. the later are grouped under audio-visual materials his opinion, Michaels (1980: 77) went further by saying that:
The use of audio-visual material is essential to the
Attainment of unit objectives, to meeting of individual
Differences and the achievement of well founded learning”.
Asa (1999). Stressed that audio-visual education emerged as a discipline in the 19205, when film technology was developing rapidly. A visual instruction movement arose, which encouraged the use of visual material to make abstract ideas more concrete to students. As sound technology improved, the movements become know as audio-visual instruction.
Community resources as an instructional material are very relevant in social studies education. Here, the students can visit place of educational importance or resource person can be invited into the classroom to give first hand information to students or their areas of specialization.
Uses of Instructional Materials
Instructional materials are the ingredients necessary for effective teaching and learning activities that are unavoidable too is for teaching or learning (NCE/DLS course Book on Edu. Cycle I) there are very essential in the teaching and learning progress.
Ughamadu (1992) noted. That through the resources used both teachers and students can influence the effectiveness of the instructional process, it is the creative use of such materials that will increase the probability that the students will learn more, retain better what they learn and improve their performance of the skills that they are to develop. He went further to explain that the attainment of the psychomotor domain can be fully achieved through the use of the instructional materials. It is only when the psychomotor objectives is achieved that it could be said that complete learning has taken place.
Omebe (2001) opined that when a teacher does not make use of teaching aids, he then showing the seed of learning difficulties among his students. The use of teaching aids is one of method of teaching employ by teacher to facilitate learning. There is a consensus of opinion among curriculum experts that the method adopted by the teachers can hinder or facilitate learning. Thus the use of teaching materials encourages detention and transfer of teaching methods is abstract, invariably, learning will not be properly done.
Students differ from one another not only socially or physically but in the way and manner they learn, Students learn through the five senses. These are through seeing (Visual) hearing (auditory) smelling touching and tasting. The students differ in the organs they use best in learning. To carry out instruction in a heterogeneous class like this, the teacher has to employ various instructional materials. Oiaidi (1990) has also highlighted the important of instructional materials which he observed that teachers use to save the students from wondering in imagination, to help his understanding and perception of a subject, to bring permance, to knowledge to bring clarity and undistorted resignation and to allow him to have a realistic firs-hand and total knowledge of a subject. This has made it to be dispensable in the teaching and learning process.
Studies in the psychology of learning suggest that the use of instructional materials such as audio-visual has general advantages. This has made it indispensable in the area of teaching and learning process. Psychologist believes that all learning is based on perception, the process by which the senses gain information from the environment. The higher process of memory and concept formation cannot occur without prior perception. People can attend to only a limited amount of information at a time. Their selection and perception of information is influenced by past experience. Researchers have found that other conditions being equal, more information is taken in if it is receive simultanceouslyin two modalities (vision and learning for example) rather than in a single modality. Moreover, learning is enhanced when material is organized at that organization is evidence to the student.
Following, the above assertion, Asa (1999:124) concludes that:
Audio-visual materials can facilitate perception of the most important features carefully organized and can Require the students to use more Than on modality.
The successive government in Nigeria since 1992 also recognized the indispensability of instructional materials (visual aid materials) to her primary and secondary school education Government is setting up an audio-visual aid Development centre of the federal Ministry of Education in Kaduna and will continue to provide funds in order to expand its facilities so as to bring its service with the reach of school.
Inadequate Fund of Education
Anyanwu (1993) sees education as an expensive venture and subsequently needs sustainable inputs from all tiers of government and charitable agencies for a successful implementation of school projects. The federal government has to work collectively in the funding of education so as to have positive out puts of their intended objectives.
According to Oguntoye (1998) it education is to maximally achieve goal such as economic growth, social and political attitudes, then financing policies should be geared toward those goals. Investment policies on education should be based on principles of equity and efficiency at whatever level the decision on financing is being made. All aspect of education systems has to be fund general development of education in the country.
Fishlow (1999) also pointed out that lack of adequate resources for the secondary level of education means that functional and lasting education cannot be provided, resulting in half-baked semiliterate man-power who are neither useful to themselves nor to the society economically. The nation secondary school system contends with an endemic and over increasing problem of where to source money to take care of the following:
- Teachers salaries and allowance
- Administrative and Office equipment
- Provision of infrastructures such as classroom blocks, Staff-rooms, Office and furniture.
- Provision of instructional aids and material.
- Maintained of buildings, grounds and general labour.
- Provision of basic health facilities.
The heads of the various health instructions of learning have made an effort to bee that they overcome financial constrains in their institutions by soliciting for the support of the government, parents, philanthropic bodies and charitable agencies in forms of subventions, grant and aids, fees, P.T.A. levies and other internally generated revenue which include donations and endowment. The parent teachers association for instance has a vital role to play in the area of funding education.
Eneasato (1990) in his opinion on funding educational research in Nigeria for National development said that in actual fact, that the Nigerian government has continued to pursue rigorously the philosophy of investment in education over since the Aghby commission report was published shortly before independence in 1960 more universities, polytechnics and colleges of education were created all aimed at producing high skilled and middle level manpower that could contribute in the process of national development. Also the universal primary education (UPE) which was Launched in (1976) was aimed at helping to increase the general literacy rate and offer opportunity for secondary education where pupils could be prepared for useful living. The funding of education is not solve responsibility of government as some people think these assertion of people towards funding of education has weakened commitment to source funds from outside government circulars to manage and develop the educational sector of the economy.
Obviously, the school will find it very difficult to survive or implement its functions and programmes without financial supports inform of aids, grants, subvention by the different levels of the government and related agencies. Most of the school facilities and infrastructure cost huge amount of money and it these facilities are not provide, invariably there will be a set back in the programme of the school. Also it teachers are not well paid it may equally affect the teaching progress.
The funding of education generally creates room for adequate provision of instructional materials. When these materials are supplied to the schools in the right quality, quantity and forms, there will be a sound teaching and learning process, high academic performance among students; and the achievement of the educational objectives (cognitive domain, affective and psychomotor domain).
Adequacy of Man-power Training and Number
Onwuka (1981) posits that instructional materials do not achieve any of the attributed values on their own. Their usefulness depends on what the teacher make out of them. He further stated that the intelligent handling of these materials in the classroom is necessary to make the fullest use of resource material. One of the reasons why available materials are not used by many teachers in schools and college is that teachers lack the necessary skills to operate them. Therefore, there is the need to have a functioning resource materials centre attached to teacher training institutions for a start and later onto some selected schools. Such measure will go long way in solving the instructional problems in schools.
According to Mkpa (1987). The role of teacher training institutions is to provide the teacher trainees with knowledge, professional skills and competencies necessary for the effective performance of their task of giving children grow through the acquisition of desirable behaviour.
NERC (1990) reported that “If teachers are apathetic, uncommitted, uninspired, Lazy, unmotivated, immoral and anti-social, the whole nation is doomed. If they are ignorant in their discipline and impact wrong information, they are not only useless but dangerous. The kind of teachers posted to the schools may well determine what the next generation will be. The teacher cannot give out what he does not have.
The National Policy on education (1981) pointed out that the purpose of teacher education school be:
To produce highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers to further the spirit of inquiry and creativity in teachers, to help teachers fit into the social life of community and society a large to provide teachers with the intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment to enhance teachers commitment to the teaching profession.
The problem that facing the Nigeria system of education is that the numbers of trained teachers are very poor. This makes it difficult to contend the steady upsurge in school enrolment. Also this problem is caused by the low perception of teachers about their Job and low public esteem about the teaching profession that has been an improvement in the there is to be an improvement in the enter education system there must be on crease in the number trained and qualified teachers.
Attitude of Teachers to work and use of Instructional Materials.
Lawman (1993) defined attitude as either a State that influences individual choices of personal action or as evaluation or emotional feeling that affect ones responses to objects or situations.
According to Benjamin and John (2003) attitudes are people guides in the course of the interaction with people and events in the world. They are the consistent ways of thinking in regard to certain people, objects and events in the world, consistent ways of feeling towards such phenomena, and consistent ways of acting or reacting when confronted.
Nwagwa (2000) offers the most comprehensive report on the attitude of teachers and in most lucid terms, by observing that today teachers contribute a great deal to the discipline crises by engaging in various acts of disrespect to the school Administration some show open insubordination and open quarrels with the headmaster. Some are irregular in attendance while a great may are perpetual late comers. Some lack sincerity and a sense of devotion to duty. He went further to explain that their lack of sincerity and devotion is shown in failure to work conscientiously by lateness or irregularity in class attendance, failure to prepare and deliver lesion efficiently, failure to give sufficient written work and inability to apply teaching aids.
Review of Empirical studies
Igboke (2001) studied the role of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning. He came up with the assertion that when there is absence of these materials, pupils encounter learning difficulties but the use of instructional resources clear the complexities of the lesson.
Eze (2004) Observed that the process of teaching and learning goes beyond more transmission of knowledge and skills and that there are acute shortage of relevant instructional materials. In his finding, Eze outlined that the inadequate of instructional materials posses a great treat to the effective teaching and learning process. He also suggested that both the teachers and the government educational authorizes have to wake up to their responsibilities.
Ahunanya (2000) in his research came up with the view that most of the teachers do not use instructional material during the teaching and learning process because they lack the knowledge on the relevance of instructional materials.
Udoh (1999) in his observation find out that majority of the students loose interest when the teacher do not apply instructional aids. He also find out that instructional arrest the attention of the students.
Aneke (1992) discovered that most of the teachers play a non-challant attitude in the use of instructional resources and this has contributed to the decline in the production and the use of those materials. He went further to prove that about 75% of teachers do no apply instructional materials in the process of teaching and learning.
Ugbo (1996) in his study concluded that the use of instructional materials is the best techniques a teacher can apply to make the instruction effective and productive.
Summary of Literature Reviewed
The production and the use of instructional materials in proportionate quality are very essential in the teaching and learning process, more especially the study of social studies.
This chapter reviewed some of the views of different authors in relation with the of instructional materials.
The conceptual fame work of social studies was discussed by Igba and Nweke (2004) right stated that the philosophy behind the introduction of social studies was as a result of problems man encounter in his physical, social, economically, psychological and political aspect of life. Therefore, social studies came to render solution to these problems. These objective were achieved through the effort of some bodies and after several conferences were held in different place in the country.
The meaning and various types of instructional materials was also treated. Instructional materials were generally described as those resources used by the teacher during the teaching and learning process. The application of those materials is for efficiency and effectiveness of the process by facilitating instructional activities.
The use of instructional materials was also discussed. It was discovered that instructional materials must be used during teaching and learning process if the teacher want to achieve the stated objectives. But today majority of the teachers do not apply them because of one reason or the other. Festus (2002) highlighted that the rate of application of instructional materials is declining even when the teachers have the knowledge of the relevance of these materials.
Another point that examined in chapter is the place of inadequate fund of Education. If education is not properly fund, invariably it will affect the production of instructional materials.
The adequacy of man-power training and number was also examined. Teachers do not use instructional materials because they lack the necessary skills on how to operate them. The numbers of the trained teachers are not encouraging and this equally affects educational process.
A look was taken on the attitude of teacher to work and the use of teachers in various institution of learning play a non-challant attitude to their work and this has gone a long way to affect the use of Instructional Materials.
This chapter concluded with the review of the studies carried out by various people on the relevance and roles of instructional materials. Thus this work is specifically designed to x-ray the indispensability of instructional materials in the secondary schools in Izzi Local Government Area.
This chapter delves into the methodology used in the conduct of this work under the following sub-heading, design of the study, Area of the study, population of the study, sample and sampling technique, entrustments for data collection and administration, validation of instrument, and method of data analysis.
Design of the Study
The design of the study describes the researches survey of examination of the indispensability of instructional materials on social studies pedagogy in secondary schools in Izzi Local government Area.
Area of the Study
The area of this study is in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
There are about 19 secondary schools in Izzi local Government Area but the researcher selected only 10 schools for easy conduct of the research. The selected secondary schools are include:
- Community secondary school Nwofe (CSSN)
- Community secondary school Izziogo (CSSI)
- Community secondary school Mbeke (CSSM)
- Community secondary school Edukwuachi (CSSE)
- Community secondary school Amachara (CSSA)
- Community secondary school Ndi-ezi Oke (CSSN)
- Community secondary school Akparata Ibina. (CSSA)
- Community secondary school Ojiegbe (CSSO)
- Community secondary school Ndi-ugo
- Community secondary school Enyig-we (CSSE).
Population of the Study
The population of this study is composed of 100 teachers these teachers were chosen from 10 secondary schools in Izzi LGA.
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Through the use of balloting 10 secondary schools were chosen for the study. The research then adopted simple random to select 10 teachers from each school making it the total of 100 respondents. This technique gave every teacher in the study a chance of being picked for the study.
Instrument for Data Collection and Administration
The main instrument used for data collection in the study was a structured opened questionnaire with 20 items that are derived from the research questions. A total number of 100 questionnaires were administered to the teachers of the 10 selected secondary schools. The research engaged some professional colleagues her in the distribution completion and retrieving of the questionnaires. The researcher was in the forefront in the conduct or administration of the instrument.
Validation of the Instrument
The draft was first presented to the project supervisor who made the necessary corrections as regards the language, content the structure. The instrument was also presented to two senior lecturers in department of Arts and Social Science Education and two other lecturers in measurement and Evaluation at Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. These lecturers criticized each item I items of sentence structures and adequacy of instruments.
On the basis of their comments suggestion, some of the original items were dropped. Therefore, the views and suggestions of these experts were incorporated in the final questionnaire.
Method of Data Analysis
The research questions were answered using mean, standard deviation and frequency.
The response to the questionnaire item includes:
SA = Strongly agree, A = agree,
D = disagree and SD = strongly disagree. SA has 4 points,
A has 3 points, D, has 2 point and SD has I point.
The peculiar nature of social studies has made it that instrumental materials must be administrated in its teaching and learning process. These material includes all sorts of information obtain in textbooks, models, make-us, news papers, films, filmstrips, poster maps, avdio-video records, magazines etc. instrumental material are very essential because they help in achievement of curriculum objective
Thus their absence makes teaching and learning process incomplete. Secondary Schools in the study area and indeed nearly all over the country face an acute dearth of the relevant instrumental material. A factor that has contributed to the problem are, lack of fund for their production and procurement, lack of basic skills and knowledge needed for their production and uses, also teachers “Lookworm” attitude towards their uses contribute to the decline.
It has been observed that teachers feel reluctant to use them even though when they have knowledge of their relevance. A solution could be proffer by encouraging the teachers to use wide range of instructional materials and improvise most of them when the materials are lacking.
Finally, Government a related agency should make sure that there are adequate provisions of instrumental materials.
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