- April 10, 2014
- Posted by: IGBAJI UGABI
- Categories: Instructional Materials, Seminar
Reproduction may be said to be the process or act through which living organisms give birth to their younger ones. According our primary knowledge of biology, Reproduction is of two kinds- Asexual and sexual.
For the purpose of this book, We shall concentrate on only human kind of
Reproduction, which is sexual reproduction.
In human there is a specific period in which reproduction may start.
The period is known as the puberty.
THE PUBERTY STAGE:
The reproductive organs or system in human becomes functional when humans reach the right age known as puberty, which begins from the very age of nince (g) to 15 years of age. (Sub TITLE) SIGNS OF PUBERTY, at puberty, the secondary sex characteristics become procinent. In males, the secondary sex characteristics includes hairy body, (especially pubic and facial), depend voice, and enlargement of penis and body muscles in general. In females, secondary sexual characteristics includes growth of pubic hairs, enlargement of breast and other parts of the reproductive system, broadening of the pelvis and hip, deposition of extra fat at the hip and other parts of the body and equally the initiation of the menstrual cycles. It is worthy of note here that certain hormones control the puberty. Hormones produced by the gonads (sexual hormonal glands) such as androgens in males and the oestrogen in females. The puberty comes with some psychological effects which when not properly monitored leads to lifetime depression or even death issues.
HEAT PERIOD IN HUMAN BEING
The world heart period here should not be looked at from its grammatical meaning perspective. Its is usually come across of in Agricultural science specially in animal reproduction. This does not mean that it doesn’t occur in humans, It do occur. Then what is it all about?
Heat period is the period of sexual receptivity or readiness in animals. It is the period in which the animals are willing to accept the oppositeness for an act of sexual intercourse. This period is characterized with some symptoms which some are physical or can be observed physically which others are internal.
(Sub – TITLE) SIGNS / SYNTOMS OF HEAT PERIOD
- Increase in the body temperature of the person (animal)
- The person will be restless. When one is on heat, one looks for will either cause sexual arousal or start touching genital organs. There is a physical or practical experience of this when the female may be touching her breast, robbing her lapses etc while their counterpart may start touching his penis, this most a times results to masturbation when one is along or in a lonely places. (see safe sex practices), when laying on the bed either holds play with the pillows and so on.. All this above makes the person restless.
- The penis swales up as a result of blood flow and become hard in male.
- The valve swells up and become reddish at the lower part of it (valve is the folded skin which surrounds the clitoris in the vagina of the females).
- Exaction of the clitoris in females. (Clitoris is the folded skin found in-between the vulva that laics above the vagina duct.)
- The females may notice penis around the hip. It is momsintary.
- The breast in female becomes swollen and the nipples stand erect. This is as a result of hormonal secretion at that moment
- There is also viscous discharge from the vagina in females.
- Some times one may lack the applite to eat or work..
It is proper that we notice that one may be induced into this emotional impulse term ‘’heat period ‘’ by seduction or by nature some times running its cost, but which ever, when the opposite sex are attracted, probably the female is in ovulation when the male meets, ejaculates, to deposited the almighty sperm cells at the female vagina. This simple act as it may look is what metamorphosed into a human being after some other processes we shall see later run.
SEXUAL CYCLE IN HUMAN FEMALE (MENSTRUAL CYCLE)
The period of life during which a female has the capacity to produce young ones is termed the fertility period. In human females, it extends from about 12-13 year i.e. (puberty) up to 45-50 year i.e. (menopause)- (see woman and her problems). Between puberty and menopause, the female reproductive system, passes through a regular monthly sequence of events called the menstrual cycle.
During each menstrual cycle, an ovum (egg) matures and is released once every 28 days. The menstrual cycle starts with menstrual flow, during which cellular living of the uterus is shed off along with.
Blood flow. This process continues for 3-4 days, but from my research so far, I discovered that this duration in same individuals extends to days, and some females individual also said that they do experience this flow (menstrual flow) 2 times within a particular month, I consult a medical doctor for canceling or medical diagnoses if necessary.
If this process continues for 3-4 days, from the 5th up to the 13th days of the onset of menstrual cycle, growth and maturation of the Graafian follicle takes place. But when it is from 3-5 days as earlier stated, it means that from the 6th up to 14th days of the onset of menstrual cycles, growth and maturation of the Graafian follicle takes place. (to understand better Graafian follicle see a labeled diagrams of the eternal structural of the human female reproductive system) NOTE: The graafian follicle produces the female hormone, oestrogen.
WHAT HEPPENS DURING SEXUAL CYCLE IN FEMALES
During sexual cycle in female, the cells lining the uterus grow rapidly and develop a network of blood vessels. The release of the ovum from the ovary is called ovulation. Ovulations take place 12-14 days after the onset of menstruation. (Onset of menstruation is immediately after one menstrual cycle ends). The Graafian follicle ruptures of release the ovum; cells of the ruptured follicle form the corpus leteum, which secretes the hormones, progesterone.
The ovum (egg) reaches the uterus through the fallopian tuber on the 13th or 14th days (depends) and remains there up to the 16th days (48-72 hours). If the ovum (egg) does not receive any sperm cell from the male during this period, it starts degenerating. At the end of the 28th days, this ovum is rejected along with the thickened lining and this markes the start of a slow disintegration of the thickened lining of the uterus and the next menstrual cycle.
There are processes that leads to the egg or ovum receiving sperm from the male already started or mentioned in this book. For details and proper understanding see (a sex… step by step move in sexual orientation.)
WHAT HAPPENS IF THE OVUM RECEIVES SPERM CELLS
If the almighty sperm cell has been ejaculated right inside of the vagina, and the ovum receives sperm when it is in the fallopian tube, the egg or ovum and the sperm cell unites to form a structure known as zygote. When this has happened, we say that fertilization has occur, that is to say that fertilization takes place in the fallopian tube. (to understand fallopian tube better also see a labeled diagramed of the human female internal reproductive system)
The zygote immediately begins to divide by the process known as meiosis and forms a mass of cells called morula, when passes down to the uterus and it is fixed to the wall of the uterus. The process is called implantation. It is a normal phenomenon for menstruation to occurring immediately there is fertilization ie menstruation does not occur again and the female is said to be pregnant or has takes “in” as it is popularly say.
SIGNS OF PREGNANCY
Pregnancy is a remarkable job of nature. The first indication will be the missing of your monthly period or blood flow, except in abnormal condition where a female sees her period a month after conception. At the same time the female may feel unusually cheer cheerful or happy, and her breasts may begin to enlarge. Another sign of pregnancy that can be notice but not physically is the enabilily of the to secrete lubes during sex marking. (Lubes are those liquid that makes the vagina to be watering during sex making.)
Some women who are tense and nervous may have a slight feeling of nausea in the morning or morning sickness as it is popularly known. A little vomiting at this early stage is common. Nature is just making a few normal adjustments and this will soon pass. It is time to see your doctor, he or she should be well qualified, for this is one time you need expert medical help, you should see your doctor at least once each month for the next four or five months, and after that every two weeks until the baby comes.
Note: During pregnancy, the young developing one or the fetus is attached to the uterus by a tissue called placenta, the functions of the placenta includes: supplies oxygen and nourishment from the maternal blood to the fetus. It also transports carbon (vi) oxide (co2) and excretory waste from the foetal blood to the maternal blood.
The umbilical card or the placenta is a tough structure that serves as the blood vascular connection between the fetus and uterine wall. From the first few week of development, the embryo is enclosed in a sac called amnion, which is filled with amniotic fluid. This fluid acts as a shock – absorber that is found in cars and help to give protection to the embryo from damage.
WHAT TO DO DURING PROGNANCY
Planning for a baby is a level experience for both parents. It is part of the real fulfillment of marriage. These nine months of waiting should be a joyful time, a time of happy planning for the future family.
This is the time nature is taking its most path and your must do your part to keep your self-healthy, not only that, and strong. Pregnancy is not some thing to be afraid of, especially these days. Child-birth is easier, far safer than the crude days of your grandmothers, this is because of the amaging advances of modern medical sciences, even the normal disforts of labour are no longer a problem most young mothers.
There are numerous things to do during pregnancy, but because of space and time constant, we shell see the top important ones, these in include:
Light exercise is also as important as any thing a pregnant woman should do or think at this time, but you must not become to tired, especially when not in good state of healthy. House work is beneficial, but avoid lifting heavy things. Stop and rest for some time when even you become overly direly. In later pregnancy it is also of a good act to lie down and rest for a few minutes in the morning and in the afternoon. Walking will serve as an excellent tonic for your system..
TAKING YOUR BIRTH:
Endeavour to take your usual daily both. Don’t use any soap or cream that has advance effect on his skin or body . Do not use any vaginal douche unless it is recommended by a qualified medical doctor (your doctor). Don’t pamper yourself; pregnancy is a perfectly normal process.
It is the most rewarding of all human experiences. Just release and do eyeing your self, there is nothing to be worried about, natural by its gracious ability has pronited every thing for you.
Do not wear anything tight or uncomfortable during pregnancy. In our comtepoing society it is common to see pregnant women wearing tight wears such as jeans and so on all in the name of fashion and civilizations. Medically ethically and otherwise it is a renowned fooliness. Some times when I look at these set of mothers especially in the later days of pregnancy, I sincerely see a botches of recreants, by the mode of dressing I hear them say or ask “what this motherhood, while not single hood”
Your clothes should hang from the shoulders, it is commonly known as maternity wear. Some say it is old style, but take it from me that those in the field of fashion now have good looking and exotic maternity wears well tailored for your comfort ability and relaxation of your and your baby.
Comfortable low-healed shoes are best. High levels may throw you off balance, especially during later month, of pregnancy, please avoid tight bands around the waist or legs at this time.
WHAT ABOUT ALCOHOL?
Alcohol in any form is not addressable. This is because it, places added strain on your kidneys and liver particularly during pregnancy. Alcohol has no nutritional value, avoid it and other powerful drugs and narcotics.
WATCH YOUR HEIGHT:
Your baby grows on the foods you eat. You must therefore be wise and choose only those foods that will keep the baby well. Your diet should be rich in minerals and vitamins, for a poor diet may make things difficult for you during labour and may even have its effect in later years.
YOUR HIV STATUS
This day, it is important that you know your HIV status during pregnancy. If you are positive, there may be some medical approaches to safe guard the baby and during the delivering or labour also to safe guard the nurses and stop the spread of HIV. Some hospital or laboratory.
WHAT ABOUT SEX ?
Normal material relations are probably safe during pregnancy until the very last few weeks. If at any time, sexual intercourse becomes uncomfortable, it is wiser to stop. Sexual intercourse help in clearing up any pelvic infection if any without delay and also widening the pelvic for easy contraction and relaxation during delivering.
Smoking is not medically wise. Cigarette smoking is not wise during pregnancy nor any other time of one life. The smoke from even one cigarette may increase the speed of your baby’s heart as much as 25% or above its previous beating rate.
Tobacco smoke contains certain poisons such as nicotine,etc. these find their way into your blood stream and affect the baby. If you are in the habit of smoking, it is better you stop. If you have never start don’t start now.
Dental or teeth decay is common during pregnancy, particularly if tour teeth is lacking calcium. Be sure to see a good dentist early in pregnancy and have needed repairs made on your teeth.
SIGNALS OF DENGER;
Remember, pregnancy is a total change of your normal body system. Some times it comes with dangerous signals. If at any time you did not feed well, do contact to your doctor immediately,particularly if you are in ain. Vomiting during the later months may be dangerous but if it is during the early month it is common. See your doctor if you observe any thing unusual, like swelling of the face, hands or feet. Dizziness and spots before your eyes could be dangerous near the end of pregnancy. If you think any thing is going wrong do see your doctor without any atom of delay.
HOW BABIES ARE BORN.
Babies coming into the world I think is not by accident. After nine months of careful preparation, growth and other biological processes, your baby is active living in the uterus. Now has come the time for the baby to star the struggle of survival by stepping out into the world.
To make possible, mother nature has been busy working on your pelvic organs by softening the issues in some extra ordinary way, it is too mysterious, so that they can stretch to allow the baby pass. There are no changes; they have been going on for the past nine months. When all is ready, some thing inside of you naturally give the order and the almighty uterin contraction begins. (contraction is the expanding and relacsing of the uterinal muscles during labour).
LABOUR A FORERUNNER OF A WOMAN’S DESTINY.
The above-mentioned contraction of the uterine is term labor. It is well named, for you surely have some exciting work ahead of you. Remember there is no thing to fear, nature and doctor and nurse are there to assist you fufill your destiny as a woman.
At first you may feel a little discomfort in the abdomen, followed by tightening of muscles. These contraction, is slow at first, later became stranger and more regular. Don’t worry its normal, you cannot stop them. These early contraction last only a few seconds, nature is just at work now smoothing out the channel for the baby put its stage labour continues, other signs include slight show of mucus or water, or water , be streaked with a little blood clinically this
Smoking is not medically wise. Cigarette smoking is not wise during pregnancy-or any other time of one life. The smoke from even one cigarette may increase the speed of your baby’s hearth as much as 25% or above the previous beating rate.
Tobacco smoke contains certain poisons such as nicotine etc. these find their way into your blood stream and affect the baby. If you are in the habit of smoking, it is better you stop. If you have never start don’t start.
Dental or teeth decay is common during pregnancy, particularly if your diet is lacking calcium. Be sure to see a good dentist early in pregnancy and have needed repair s made
on your teeth.
SIGNALS OF DANGER
Remember, pregnancy is a total change of your normal body system. Some times it comes with dangerous signals. If at any time you do not feed well, do contact your doctor immediately, particularly if you are in pain.Vomiting during the later month may be dangerous but if it is during the early months it is common. See your doctor if you observe any unusual, like swelling of the face, hand or feet. Dizziness and sports before your eyes could be dangerous the end of pregnancy. If you think any anything is wrong do see your doctor any atom of delay.
HOW BABIES ARE BORN
Babies coming into the world I think it is not by accident. After nine month of careful preparation, growth and other biological processes your baby is active living in the uterus. Now has come the time for baby to start the struggle of stepping out into the world.
To make this possible, mother nature has been busy working on your pelvic organs by softening the issues in some extra ordinary way, it is too mysterious, so that they can stretch to allow the baby to pass. There are on sudden changes; they have been going on for past nine good God giving months. When all is ready, some things inside of you naturally give the order and the almighty uterine contraction begins. (Contraction is the expanding and releasing of the uterine muscles during labour).
LABOUR A FORERUNNER OR A WOMAN’S DESTINY
The above mentioned contraction of the uterine is term labour. It is well named, for you surely have some exciting work ahead of you. Remember that there is nothing to fear, nature and, doctors and nurses are there to assist you fulfill your destiny as a woman.
At first you may feel a little discomfort in the abdomen, followed by tightening of the muscles. The contraction, is slow at first, later becomes stronger and regular. Don’t worry its normal you cant stop them. These early contraction last only few a seconds, nature is just at work now, smoothing out channel for the baby.
1ST STAGE OF LABOUR
Labour continues, other signs include slight show of mucus or water may be streaked with a little blood coming out, you should let your doctor know immediately.
SECOND STAGE OF LABOUR
You are now the second stage of labour. The baby is moving in to the proper position, and each contraction help to open the way. Do your best to rest at this point. If labour seem slow you may get up and walk around for a while. Stretching your muscles will improve the circulation in your legs, already said you have nothing to fear if you are strong and healthy, you are capable of caring this work to the end
Notice: The duration labour is not precise. With your first child, you may be in labour for 12 to 24 hours, but later babies the duration is usually shortened to 6 hours or less than that. However, you will be resting and perhaps even sleeping most of the time, the more you can rest the better for your baby and you.
At this stage, you need to be more strong. As the baby moves down into the birth canal, the contraction becomes harder. These heaviest muscular contraction help to open the cervix. The contraction now last longer than before and coming frequently. If the pains is much the doctor is to assist. There is an interesting time ahead of you now, it would be a pity to sleep through that magic moment of your baby’s first cry and miss the joy of your wonderful accomplishment